Differential effects of resistance and endurance exercise in the fed state on signaling molecule phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human muscle.Wilkinson SB, Phillips SM, Atherton PJ, Patel R, Yarasheski KE, Tarnopolsky MA, Rennie MJ. McMaster University. Resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise stimulate mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis. The phenotypes induced by RE (myofibrillar protein accretion) and EE (mitochondrial expansion) training must result from differential stimulation of myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis. We measured the synthetic rates of myofibrillar and mitochondrial proteins and the activation of signaling proteins (Akt-mTOR-p70S6K) at rest and after an acute bout of RE or EE in the untrained state and after 10 wk of RE or EE training in young healthy men. While untrained, RE stimulated both myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis, 67% and 69% (P<0.02), respectively. After training, only myofibrillar protein synthesis increased with RE (36%, P= 0.05). EE stimulated mitochondrial protein synthesis in both the untrained, 154%, and trained, 105%, (both P<0.05) but not myofibrillar protein synthesis. Acute RE and EE increased the phosphorylation of proteins in the Akt-mTOR-p70S6K pathway with comparatively minor differences between two exercise stimuli. Phosphorylation of Akt-mTOR-p70S6K proteins was increased after 10 wk of RE training but not by EE training. Chronic RE or EE training modifies the protein synthetic response of functional protein fractions, with a shift toward exercise phenotype-specific responses, without an obvious explanatory change in the phosphorylation of regulatory signaling pathway proteins.