NASA Research on hypertrophy

Discussion in 'Hypertrophy Research' started by FullDeplex, Jul 14, 2008.

  1. FullDeplex

    FullDeplex New Member

    Hi, this is my second post!

    I was wondering if one of you ever heard of this study by NASA about the usefulness of isometric exercise in space? I couldn't find a better source than this, so here go nothing. If someone can find the original research, please post it, thanks.

    http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2004/10dec_muscles.htm
    Does this mean that muscles fibres also need movement to grow?
     
  2. dkm1987

    dkm1987 New Member

    1: Roy RR, Pierotti DJ, Garfinkel A, Zhong H, Baldwin KM, Edgerton VR.
    Persistence of motor unit and muscle fiber types in the presence of inactivity.
    J Exp Biol. 2008 Apr;211(Pt 7):1041-9.
    PMID: 18344477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    2: Adams GR, Haddad F, Bodell PW, Tran PD, Baldwin KM.
    Combined isometric, concentric, and eccentric resistance exercise prevents
    unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats.
    J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;103(5):1644-54. Epub 2007 Sep 13.
    PMID: 17872405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    3: Heinemeier KM, Olesen JL, Haddad F, Langberg H, Kjaer M, Baldwin KM,
    Schjerling P.
    Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal
    muscle in response to specific contraction types.
    J Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;582(Pt 3):1303-16. Epub 2007 May 31.
    PMID: 17540706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    4: Heinemeier KM, Olesen JL, Schjerling P, Haddad F, Langberg H, Baldwin KM,
    Kjaer M.
    Short-term strength training and the expression of myostatin and IGF-I isoforms
    in rat muscle and tendon: differential effects of specific contraction types.
    J Appl Physiol. 2007 Feb;102(2):573-81. Epub 2006 Oct 12.
    PMID: 17038487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    5: Garma T, Kobayashi C, Haddad F, Adams GR, Bodell PW, Baldwin KM.
    Similar acute molecular responses to equivalent volumes of isometric,
    lengthening, or shortening mode resistance exercise.
    J Appl Physiol. 2007 Jan;102(1):135-43. Epub 2006 Sep 28.
    PMID: 17008438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    6: Haddad F, Adams GR, Bodell PW, Baldwin KM.
    Isometric resistance exercise fails to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy
    processes during the initial stages of unloading.
    J Appl Physiol. 2006 Feb;100(2):433-41. Epub 2005 Oct 20.
    PMID: 16239603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    7: Adams GR, Cheng DC, Haddad F, Baldwin KM.
    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to isometric, lengthening, and shortening
    training bouts of equivalent duration.
    J Appl Physiol. 2004 May;96(5):1613-8.
    PMID: 15075307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    8: Hyatt JP, Roy RR, Baldwin KM, Edgerton VR.
    Nerve activity-independent regulation of skeletal muscle atrophy: role of MyoD
    and myogenin in satellite cells and myonuclei.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):C1161-73. Epub 2003 Jul 2.
    PMID: 12839833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    9: Haddad F, Roy RR, Zhong H, Edgerton VR, Baldwin KM.
    Atrophy responses to muscle inactivity. II. Molecular markers of protein
    deficits.
    J Appl Physiol. 2003 Aug;95(2):791-802. Epub 2003 Apr 25.
    PMID: 12716877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    10: Haddad F, Roy RR, Zhong H, Edgerton VR, Baldwin KM.
    Atrophy responses to muscle inactivity. I. Cellular markers of protein deficits.
    J Appl Physiol. 2003 Aug;95(2):781-90. Epub 2003 Apr 25.
    PMID: 12716870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    11: Baldwin KM, Haddad F.
    Effects of different activity and inactivity paradigms on myosin heavy chain gene
    expression in striated muscle.
    J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jan;90(1):345-57. Review.
    PMID: 11133928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    12: Haddad F, Qin AX, Zeng M, McCue SA, Baldwin KM.
    Effects of isometric training on skeletal myosin heavy chain expression.
    J Appl Physiol. 1998 Jun;84(6):2036-41.
    PMID: 9609798 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
  3. Lol

    Lol Super Moderator Staff Member

    Well, you did ask FD! [​IMG]

    Dan is a veritable mine of info on pretty much everything and anything relating to muscle.

    Just musing, but why don't NASA just give their astronauts a course of test or a steroid stack while they are out in space? Surely that along with some exercise would help maintain muscle mass? After all, I thought steroids were developed to help reverse the effects of muscle wasting diseases? Seems logical to me or would it be politically incorrect? Plus there's a ready supply already available.

    Interesting that the photo used on their website is of a heavily juiced bber, or did they think that was natural? [​IMG]
     
  4. Joe.Muscle

    Joe.Muscle Active Member

    <div>
    (Lol @ Jul. 14 2008,6:00)</div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE">Just musing, but why don't NASA just give their astronauts a course of test or a steroid stack while they are out in space? Surely that along with some exercise would help maintain muscle mass? After all, I thought steroids were developed to help reverse the effects of muscle wasting diseases? Seems logical to me or would it be politically incorrect? Plus there's a ready supply already available.</div>
    Being serious this is really not a bad idea.

    I just got my 70$ box set in from the discovery channel.

    Its 6 hours of documentary called &quot;When we left earth&quot;.

    Its and awesome story of the gemini program as well as the Apollo program and the space shuttle program.

    When you see what those guys go through it would be awesome to give them a little juice to help!
     
  5. <div>
    (Joe.Muscle @ Jul. 14 2008,8:50)</div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE">&quot;When we left earth&quot;.</div>
    I taped those and can confirm their awesomeness.
     
  6. colby2152

    colby2152 New Member

    <div>
    (fearfactory @ Jul. 15 2008,8:26)</div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE"><div>
    (Joe.Muscle @ Jul. 14 2008,8:50)</div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE">&quot;When we left earth&quot;.</div>
    I taped those and can confirm their awesomeness.</div>
    Watched them each Sunday, and I, too, can confirm their awesomeness.  Gary Sinise was the perfect narrator.  I wasn't impressed with Ron Howard's follow up, &quot;Other Side of the Moon&quot;, or whatever it was called.  However, it did show a different side of the importance of the Apollo missions with everything else seemingly going wrong in the United States in the 1960's.
     
  7. FullDeplex

    FullDeplex New Member

    <div></div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE"> 1: Roy RR, Pierotti DJ, Garfinkel A, Zhong H, Baldwin KM, Edgerton VR.
    Persistence of motor unit and muscle fiber types in the presence of inactivity.
    J Exp Biol. 2008 Apr;211(Pt 7):1041-9.
    PMID: 18344477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    2: Adams GR, Haddad F, Bodell PW, Tran PD, Baldwin KM.
    Combined isometric, concentric, and eccentric resistance exercise prevents
    unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats.
    J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;103(5):1644-54. Epub 2007 Sep 13.
    PMID: 17872405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    and so on and on....
    </div>
    Holy Sh.., Thanks Dan. No really, thank you. [​IMG] I will read them all (at least the abstracts) when I have the time. Great Forum!
     
  8. FullDeplex

    FullDeplex New Member

    Ok, I've read the abstracts of all that research. Now I have even more questions... [​IMG]

    According to the research 12 on the effect of isometric contractions: <div></div><div id="QUOTEHEAD">QUOTE</div><div id="QUOTE">Significant transformations in MHC expression occurred and involved specifically a decrease in the relative expression of the fast type IIb MHC and concomitant increased expression of the fast type IIx MHC. These adaptations were observed in both the &quot;white&quot; and &quot;red&quot; regions of the MG, and they occurred at both the mRNA and protein levels.</div>
    I assume this means that some fibres (fast type IIx) DO grow by isometric stimulation, but this just isn't enough to prevent atrophy by unloading (2,6). According to 3,5,7 all types of contraction stimulate the about the same hormonal reactions in the same degrees. Although 3 suggests that CTGF didn't increase in some kind(s) of contraction, but the abstract isn't clear about which one.
    Muscles seem to react best to eccentric contraction (4).
    It is strange to see that some research (like 5 and 7) seems to contradict each other. And research doesn't show why certain contractions work, but simply shows that some work and some don't. It also isn't explained why movement is needed for most fibres to grow.

    I assume that the increased muscle mass stimulated by isometric is mainly mitochondrial expansion and not by increase in contractile proteins. But this isn't explained in the research. (If I mixed up some of the words, sorry, I am not an expert)
    Hypothetically speaking isometric contractions could be interesting for people just looking for bigger muscles when combined with a solid hypertrophy inducing program like HST, because it is appears to be very successful in induced mitochondrial expansion. But, as I wrote, I am not an expert and there is just too little info in the research about this kind of combination except for 2. Please comment on this idea. [​IMG]

    PS: It is funny to see that this research confirms HST a bit on the use of eccentric contractions and loading parameters.
    PSS: NASA is also looking at activity independent mechanisms that prevent atrophy (1,8,9), so &quot;Anabolics in Space&quot; might be the next series on the discovery channel. [​IMG]
     

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