A prior bout of exercise is well known to confer protection from subsequent eccentric bouts (i.e. repeated bout effect; RBE), which may be fostered through neural adaptations, specifically a shift in the frequency content of the surface electromyogram (EMG). It is currently not clear whether chronically resistance trained men are capable of a RBE driven by neural adaptations. Eleven resistance trained men (23.5 ± 3.4 yrs) performed 100 eccentric actions of the barbell bench press exercise, followed by an equivalent bout 14 days later. Indirect markers of muscle damage (i.e. force production, soreness) along with surface EMG were measured before and through 48 h of recovery. Median frequency and maximal isometric force demonstrated time main effects (p > 0.05), but no RBE. A prior bout of eccentric exercise does not confer a RBE for indirect markers of muscle injury or elicit changes in the frequency content of the EMG signal in resistance trained men. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783719/ This seems to hint at a threshold (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688830)that simply cannot be reached in trained persons - how do we reconcile this data in regards to practical training outcomes and it's relevance on the need to include SD?