From Mechanotransduction and the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle T. A. Hornberger and K. A. Esser Fig. 1. Protein synthesis is regulated by a coordinated array of biochemical events. Using insulin stimulation as an example, a schematic of signalling events involved in the regulation of protein synthesis is described. Although the biochemical events that regulate protein synthesis following mitogenic and nutrient stimulation have been fairly well characterized, the molecules that sense mechanical stimuli (mechanoreceptors) and the resulting biochemical events that regulate protein synthesis in response to changes in tension are not known. P, phosphate; Ga and Gbg, subunits of G-protein; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; 3,4,5 PtdIns, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate;IRS, insulin receptor substrate; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; PDK, phosphatidylinositol-dependent protein kinase; PKB, protein kinase B; GSK-3b, glycogen synthase kinase 3b; MKK, mitogenactivated protein kinase kinase; MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; p70S6k, ribosomal S6 kinase; 4E-BP1, eIF 4E-binding protein 1; eIF, eukaryotic initiation factor; p38, stress-activated protein kinase; MNK, mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase.